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Karabakh, Azerbaijan

Karabakh is one of Azerbaijan’s ancient regions. The name of this inseparable part of Azerbaijan consists of two Azerbaijani words: “kara/gara” (black) and “bakh/bagh” (garden). In Azerbaijani, the word “gara” can also mean “thick” or “large.” In this regard, Karabakh means “a large garden” or “a thick garden.”

From the ancient times until invasion by the Russian Empire in the early 19th century, the Nagorno-Karabakh region was part of different Azerbaijani states. On 14 May 1805, the Treaty of Kurakchay (1805) was signed between Ibrahim Khan, the Khan of Karabakh, and a representative of the Russian Emperor, General Pavel Tsitsianov. Under this treaty, the Karabakh khanate was brought under Russian rule.

Armenia broke out a lengthy war against Azerbaijan laying territorial claims on its South Caucasus neighbor. Since a war in the early 1990s, Armenian armed forces have occupied 20 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory, including Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding regions. More than 20,000 Azerbaijanis were killed and over 1 million were displaced as a result of the large-scale hostilities.

Political and legal framework for the settlement of the conflict are well known – those are important resolutions of the UN Security Council, the norms and principles of the international law and the Helsinki Final act.

Armenia has not yet implemented four UN Security Council resolutions on withdrawal of its armed forces from the Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding districts.


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